Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are defined as consolidation of companies. Differentiating the two terms, Mergers is the combination of two companies to form one, while Acquisitions is one company taken over by the other. M&A is one of the major aspects of corporate finance world. The reasoning behind M&A generally given is that two separate companies together create more value compared to being on an individual stand. With the objective of wealth maximization, companies keep evaluating different opportunities through the route of merger or acquisition.
Mergers & Acquisitions can take place:
- By Purchasing Assets
- By Purchasing Common Shares
- By Exchange of Shares for Assets
- By Exchanging Shares for Shares
Types of Mergers and Acquisitions:
Merger or amalgamation may take two forms: merger through absorption or merger through consolidation. Mergers can also be classified into three types from an economic perspective depending on the business combinations, whether in the same industry or not, into horizontal (two firms are in the same industry), vertical (at different production stages or value chain) and conglomerate (unrelated industries). From a legal perspective, there are different types of mergers like short form merger, statutory merger, subsidiary merger and merger of equals.